Your Guide to Infinite Crisis:

A Brief History of Hawkman, Part 2

Having previously examined the history of Hawkman from his Golden Age origins through the new Hawkgirl’s debut in JSA, we now conclude our look at Hawkman, terminating just before The Rann-Thanagar War.

When we last left her, Hawkgirl Kendra Saunders had been plagued by memories belonging to none other than Golden Age Hawkgirl Shiera Hall. She had just learned that her suicide attempt about a year before had somehow been successful. Meanwhile, Flash Jay Garrick had been stranded in ancient Egypt, where he had discovered a crashed Thanagarian ship.

“The Return of Hawkman” in JSA

Searching for answers in JSA#22 (cover-dated May 2001), JSA chairman Sand Hawkins sought out Speed Saunders, Kendra’s grandfather. Speed Saunders reveals that, a year before, Kendra committed suicide. After being dead for some ten minutes, she suddenly snapped back to life — but her eyes had changed from green to brown. Speed Saunders soon realized that Kendra was gone. In her place, Speed recognized Shiera instead. Shiera herself had taken over her own great-niece’s body. Knowing that this meant that Khufu / Carter Hall would also return some day, Speed Saunders began to train Kendra as Hawkgirl. Sand gathers the Justice Society, along with Black Adam, and confronts Kendra, but she tries to flee. As Black Adam grabs Kendra in the air, she ripples with energy and disappears.

Meanwhile, in ancient Egypt, Jay Garrick hears from Khufu how the Thanagarian ship crashed and Teth-Adam retrieved it. In time, they retrieved the Nth metal from the ship, shaping it into artifacts such as the so-called Claw of Horus, which they give to Garrick. They speak of reincarnation. Borrowing speed from Black Adam, Jay Garrick leaps through time into the present and finding the Justice Society just after Kendra’s disappearance. Holding the Claw of Horus, Garrick says that Hawkman is returning.

Before the issue ends, we see Kendra’s energy shooting through space. As the issue ends, she rematerializes on Thanagar. As JSA #23 opens, Kendra learns that she’s being sheltered by good Thanagarians who are resisting Onimar Synn, the Thanagarian demon known as the Eater of Souls who has enslaved the rest of Thanagarian society. Reanimated Thanagarian corpses attack in full winged armor under Onimar Synn’s control. Her Thanagarian protectors, however, rush Kendra out of battle and into hiding.

As the Justice Society prepares to follow Kendra to Thanagar, they are joined by Black Adam. Despite his questionable past as an apparent villain, Jay Garrick pleads for his inclusion based on their meeting in ancient Egypt.

On Thanagar, Kendra is led to a rebel sanctuary where she learns that Onimar Synn rules Thanagar — and all its Nth metal — from the floating city of Thalrassa. In Thalrassa, we see Onimarr Synn, accompanied by his assistants, the large green being Crypt and the half-tangible Phade. Synn interrogate and devour the life energy of a prisoner, then order him outfitted with armor so that he may serve as a winged zombie warrior. Back at the rebel sanctuary, Kendra is told that Nth metal is “psycho-receptive,” responding to emotional states as well as countering gravity. This knowledge helped Thanagar conquer an empire, but was lost with that empire’s collapse centuries ago.

We and Kendra are briefly shown how, sixty years before, as Thanagar was again branching out into space, Paran Katar met Carter Hall on Earth. Not only did he know Carter as the reincarnation of Khufu, as past continuity had established, but he knew that Khufu had uncovered the Nth metal of a crashed Thanagarian ship. The “psycho-receptive” Nth metal had granted Khufu the racial memories stored within it.

While this is new information, mixing hokey super-hero mysticism with sci-fi mysticism vaguely reminiscent of Dune, it importantly adds to our understanding of Hawkman’s legacy while honoring the past.

Kendra asks why she’s been summoned to Thanagar and is told that she’s there to act as an emotional beacon for Carter Hall, aiding in his resurrection.

Meanwhile, on Earth, the Justice Society makes their way to Thanagar by passing through Dr. Fate’s extra-dimensional tower. Both they and Onimar Synn himself feel that something is happening as Kendra reaches into a bubbling pool prepared for her and finds a hand reaching back.

A figure steps up and out of the pool. It’s Carter Hall, young again, now with black hair instead of blond and clad in an only slightly updated version of his classic costume. Hawkman has returned. And he’s greeting Kendra as his “once and future love.”

The complications of that statement begin to be teased out in the next chapter, JSA #24 (cover-dated July 2001). For Kendra, the experience has been that of a nightmare: she has discovered that she’s not who she thought she was, and she tells Hawkman that she’s not who he thinks she is. He begs to differ. As, apparently, does the Justice Society, which recognizes Carter Hall.

For some, he’s a departed friend. For others, he’s a friend of a mentor. For current JSA chairman Sand Hawkins, he’s the original JSA chairman. For a teary Hector Hall, otherwise known as Dr. Fate, he’s a father.

Carter explains that he has the memories of his predecessors, including even Katar Hol. After being alerted to the threat of Onimar Synn, Carter takes the Claw of Horus from Jay Garrick, remembering their encounter in ancient Egypt back when Carter was still Khufu. Carter puts the gauntlet on as a horde of reanimated Thanagarians attack. The claw negates the first wave’s Nth metal, causing the flying zombies to crash to the ground.

For her part, Kendra seems horrified. As the Justice League engages the rest of the armored zombies, Carter calls her Shiera. She objects. He says that they’re destined to be together. As she slashes through the helmet of an armored corpse, she points out how creepy his words sound.

The Justice Society continues engaging the Thanagarian zombies, but Crypt and Phade, Synn’s personal assistants, join the fray. Crypt, a giant green monster, swallows Atom Smasher, and Jay Garrick is helpless to free his teammate.

Then Onimar Synn himself appears. Seeing that Sand Hawkins is the leader, Synn swings his arm against Sand, loosing his atoms and scattering to the wind the hero made of living sand. When Black Adam strikes at Onimar Synn, the devil raises and hand and causes Black Adam to stop in mid-air, then hurl off into space. Carter and Kendra resist a number of flying zombie warriors, but Onimar Synn lifts a hand that seems to electrifies the duo. They fall helpless and unconscious upon the ground.

The Justice Society, minus Sand, Atom Smasher, and Black Adam, awake in a prison with walls of white light. When Kendra speaks assertively, Jay Garrick tries to calm her, spurring Carter to tell Jay, “you know how she can get” — which spurs Kendra to tell Carter simply to stop.

Onimar Synn interrupts, taking Hawkman and Hawkgirl away with him and a group of reanimated guards. As they walk through the enormous floating Thanagarian city of Thalrassa, Onimar Synn explains that Hawkman’s return has helped rally the resistance. So Synn wants to destroy the two heroes publicly by making them walk a plank, falling from the floating city to the Plain of Bones below. He’s apparently sent more than five thousand to their deaths this way, including members of Thanagar’s old government. He explains how Thanagarian razor birds will pick their corpses clean.

Carter and Kendra have been tied together and placed on the edge of the plank. He assures her that they’ll be okay. Irritated, Onimar Synn pushes them off with disdain. We watch as they fall, bound, until they look like ants in the red clouds below.

It’s a great cliffhanger. JSA #25 (cover-dated August 2001) opens with the pair continuing their descent. Carter asks if she trusts him, and she says that she does. With that, he breaks the rope and dives aerodynamically ahead of her, steering towards a group of flying zombie soldiers below. Landing on one, he kills them all over again and takes one’s wings, then flies to catch Kendra just before she hits the ground.

Kendra thanks him by slugging him and yelling at him for not telling her. But Hawkman’s just smiling, saying that she “always had a good right.”

In prison on the floating city, Mr. Terrific struggles as a man of science with the notion of souls, brought up by Carter’s reincarnation. Jay Garrick reveals that he and his wife Joan had a child but lost him after two weeks. He says that he knows he’ll see his son again.

Elsewhere in the city, Onimar Synn is lording it over Thanagar’s former ruler, the Grand Mor. Synn promises to kill and reanimate all of Thanagar, then turn to the stars. Synn asserts that he the most powerful of Thanagar’s mythical seven devils. But a breeze is carrying some sand into the room…

Below the city, Hawkman and Hawkgirl snap the necks of two zombies and take there armor, then fly upward towards Thalrassa and battle.

In prison, Mr. Terrific uses his powers to isolate a flaw that Jay Garrick exploits at super-speed. The Justice Society is free.

Elsewhere in the city, amidst a growing sandstorm, Hawkman and Hawkgirl attack Phade, revealing themselves. Onimar Synn appears immediately, having sensed Carter’s presence. But Black Adam has recovered from being knocked into space and is speeding downward at Onimar with frightening velocity. He tears Synn through the bottom of the city itself, crashing into the Plain of Bones below.

Above, the sandstorm beings to consolidate. Sand has reformed himself. Crypt attacks but is ripped apart from inside by Atom Smasher, still alive inside the beast. The gang’s all there.

Below, Black Adam battles Onimar Synn but is knocked upwards, rejoining the rest of the Justice Society in the floating city. But Onimar Synn begins to pull the city apart, reforming it into a massive construct of stone and metal — a construct he forms into a new, massive body. Tiny bodies fall helplessly from Synn’s new form, which leaves nothing left of the city.

The gigantic Synn begins smashing away at the Justice Society. Atom Smasher uses his power to grow in size, striking Synn but being easily knocked unconscious to the ground in response. Hawkgirl feels helpless, but Hawkman says that Synn’s new body is made of Nth metal and includes the Claw of Horus. Because of Nth metal’s psycho-receptive qualities, and because the special Claw of Horus is within Synn’s body, Hawkman stops fighting and kisses Kendra, asking her to believe in their destiny together. She sees to, because Synn’s body suddenly explodes as the Hawks embrace as figures of white light in the brightness of the explosion.

The Claw of Horus comes crashing to the ground beside them. Hawkman picks it up and takes hold of Kendra’s hand. But she rebuffs him. Yes, she’s attracted to him, she says, but she needs time to sort this all out — an interesting twist that helps to redeem the cliché of defeating the villain through the power of love. Carter acquiesces, beginning to call her Shiera but correcting himself.

The Thanagarian rebels thank the team and use magic to create a portal back to Earth. The newly resurrected Hawkman promises to return, saying that his heart is split between both worlds. And with that, the Justice Society materializes in their headquarters.

Overall, the storyline has a number of nice moments, even if the timing of them somehow makes them come off as less powerful than they could be. The cliffhangers are really the best part, and the super-hero clichés are mixed with more successful elements that would be more at home in a science-fiction serial. The story’s reliance upon mysticism lessens its effect, but one can easily pardon this in exchange for the result: Hawkman is back, and he’s Carter Hall.

The Fourth, and Longest-Running, Hawkman

Carter Hall would be officially welcomed back into the Justice Society in JSA #26, the issue after the “Return of Hawkman” concluded. Despite his experience, he would not contest Sand’s position as chairman.

Just a few months later, in early 2002, a fourth Hawkman ongoing was launched (#1 was cover-dated May 2002). Effectively co-starring Hawkgirl, the series saw the two establish their base of operations as St. Roch, Louisiana, a fictional city clearly based on New Orleans.

The dynamic between Carter Hall and Kendra Saunders established in “The Return of Hawkman” would continue to play out for some time. Fully able to remember his previous lives, Carter found it difficult to accept Kendra’s reluctance and continued to think of herself as Shiera. For her part, Kendra struggled with the fact that she knew that she was Carter’s lover reincarnated, but she couldn’t access these memories and feelings the way Carter had. She still thought of herself as Kendra Saunders and kept that name. Eventually, she decided that she didn’t wish a relationship with Carter, at least in this lifetime, and he came to accept her decision.

While Hawkman was never a best-seller, it still outlasted its three relatively short-lived predecessors of the same titles. Hawkman #34, the issue with which the series officially became the longest Hawkman ongoing ever, was cover-dated January 2005. This longevity was a product of the times as much as of quality, however. While the American comics market was considerably off its peak, titles continued to proliferate and were being cancelled at ever lower levels.

As the DC Universe geared up for Countdown to Infinite CrisisHawkman was embroiled in a lengthy storyline that would prevent it from participating. Readers were left to wonder whether this storyline occurred before or after The Rann-Thanagar War, let alone Hawkman’s continued appearances in JSA and in JLA‘s historic “Crisis of Conscience” storyline. The confusion was made greater by the fact that Hawkman was killed off in the pages of his own title.

In this Hawkman storyline, a group of Hawkman’s old foes led by The Fadeaway Man combine forces, dousing Hawkman with a drug that leads him (in issue #39) to beat Hawkgirl unconscious, putting her in a coma. Golden Eagle, a.k.a. Charley Parker, another flying hero who had appeared in decades past with the Teen Titans, comes to St. Roch and joins Hawkman, claiming to be his son. The pair battle the villains together, but the villains succeed in killing Hawkman.

In issue #42 (cover-dated September 2005), a super-villain called The Purple Pilgrim attacks Hawkgirl in the hospital while her grandfather Speed Saunders was waiting on her. Newly conscious, Hawkgirl rescues Speed while Golden Eagle battles the villainess outside, but she escapes. Speed tries to tell Kendra about Hawkman’s death, but she volunteers that she hopes he’s in jail after beating her. Golden Eagle and Speed Saunders excuse Hawkman, explaining that he was “brainwashedby someone called Thought Terror” and didn’t know what he was doing. She asks, then, why he wasn’t at the hospital. It’s then that the two tell her that Hawkman is dead. Kendra can’t believe it, saying that only Hath-Set is supposed to be able to kill Hawkman, but Golden Eagle says that he was there and flies off, saying that he failed his mentor.

As the issue continues, we see Satana, who’s now risen to control crime in St. Roch. She holds court at The Lure, a club filled with half-animal bodyguards of her own design. Kristopher Renard Roderic, an art dealer, arrives and is about to take Satana upstairs to have sex when Fadeaway Man arrives. He gives her a briefcase, “the other half of your payment for the Hawkman job.” He says he’s retired and refuses an offer to sell the Cloak of Cagliostro, which he uses to teleport.

Back at the Stonecraft Museum, Kendra seems to be lamenting how she and Hawkman never dared a relationship. Confused, Kendra is researching some way to find The Fadeaway Man to make him pay. Speed’s told her that Golden Eagle is Carter’s son, something that further confuses her. The Purple Pilgrim attacks again, tossing Speed around while Kendra suits up, adding the Claw of Horus to her arsenal. She takes the battle into the streets, but the villain departs. Then, arriving too late, Hawkman appears.

Issue #43 (cover-dated October 2005) is focused around Golden Eagle telling his story. He recounts how Carter Hall turned Midway City Museum into one of the nation’s best. Charley Parker, however, grew up in an Midway City orphanage and learned to fight. He got embroiled in crime, living the high life while staying with a criminally connected foster family until he turned eighteen and was kicked out. Wearing a black shirt with a Hawkman symbol, he tried to commit suicide by jumping off a bridge, but Hawkman saved him. Hawkman listens to the boy’s story and sends him to see Carter Hall about a job. When he does, Adam Strange is there, dropping off some the armor that would later become Golden Eagle’s to the museum as a gift.

One night, Charley found Hawkgirl wounded with the Shadow-Thief in pursuit. Instead of running, the boy grabbed a sword and fought, helping to protect Hawkgirl until Hawkman arrives and beats Shadow-Thief. After Hawkman takes the villain to jail, he takes off his helmet and reveals his identity, promising to train the boy to wear the flying armor Adam Strange has dropped off. After a few weeks of training, though, Hawkman announced that he was leaving and a new curator was taking over the museum. Carter left the boy with his armor and well-wishes.

Charley moved to California, adventuring as Golden Eagle, then meeting the Teen Titans and helping to form the group’s offshoot, Titans West. He stayed with the team until both teams disbanded, then went back to surfing. Duped by Deathstroke to search for some of his old teammates with Aqualad, Golen Eagle almost died fighting Wildebeast, but his Nth metal armor healed him.

Back in the present, Golden Eagle says the he doesn’t understand why Carter didn’t mention him earlier, but Kendra acknowledges that Carter had his secrets. She asks why Charley was wearing Carter’s armor, and he explains that it’s to lure out the villains who killed Carter — which Kendra agrees is great if it means revenge against Carter’s killers. As to how he knows Carter was his father, he says he took a blood sample after a recent attack by the Fadeaway Man (in issue #38) and it confirmed Carter’s parentage. He can only guess that Carter knew and was watching out for him over the years. Donning Hawkman’s helmet, he says that he wants to make up for a career that he thinks must have disappointed Carter.

All that remains is an epilogue in which Fadeaway Man visits Lion Mane in the Congo, where the half-lion villains is lounging with no less than four Nubian beauties. Fadeaway Man drops off the second half of Lion Mane’s payment for his recent actions against Hawkman, and Lion Mane expresses a simple desire to retire, happy as his life is. After Fadeaway Man leaves, however, Lion Mane smells something and heads outside, where he tears through some African warriors before being hit with an axe — again and again and again and again. It’s nothing less than the new and apparently newly savage Hawkman, who demands to know where Fadeaway Man can be found.

As issue #44 (cover-dated November 2005) opens, the new Hawkman and Hawkgirl are battling Satana’s half-animals minions in St. Roch, looking for information. When Hawkman threatens to kill one, he begins to speak.

On a Mediterranean island, someone sneaks into the Fadeaway Man’s fine abode and takes the Cloak of Cagliostro, using it to begin beating the villain. It’s not altogether clear who’s doing so, though we naturally suspect Hawkman.

Hawkman and Hawkgirl break into Satana’s club, The Lure, in St. Roch.

In Montana, a villain is about to take home a girl at a bar when someone grabs him using the Cloak of Cagliostro. A moment later, he’s on a mountain tundra, crying that he didn’t know Fadeaway Man had planned such a bloody scheme. The cloak’s wearer, however, just flies off — in a wonderful maneuver, the camera follows him, looking back at the diminishing body left abandoned on the ice.

Back in St. Roch, Satana stabs Hawkgirl in the shoulder. As this sequence continues from the previous one in St. Roch, we know that the new Hawkman can’t be the wearer of the cloak. Hawkman and Hawkgirl break up the club, but Satana escapes. Hawkman asks if she thinks that Satana had anything to do with Carter’s death. Kendra responds, “If I did, she’d be dead.”

In Punjab, India, a winged villainess named Marci wakes to find herself in a large cage held aloft by half- elephant men lead by one Aalok of the Komeriah. They lower it, over her protests, into a deep, dark well. A disembodied voice, presumably wearing the Cloak of Cagliostro, recounts her personal history and tells her that no one’s coming to save her.

Back in St. Roch, the new Hawkman treats Kendra’s wounds. It’s been three weeks and Fadeaway Man still hasn’t shown. As they contemplate what to do, Charley takes her to see a Thanagarian ship that he says he’s spent the last four years working on. The schematics were apparently encoded in his Golden Eagle armor, which came from Thanagar, though it took him years to realize it. He says that he wants to take her to Thanagar and kisses her. He then insults Carter, calling him an imposter of impure blood, and punches her. His past as he related was a lie, the orphan aspect added to appeal to sympathizing super-heroes. The Titans, he said, pitied him — except for Robin, who always seemed to suspect. He seems to be preparing to kill her when he feels a sword.

It’s Hawkman — the real Hawkman. And he’s got the Cloak of Cagliostro.

As issue #45 opens, Carter uses the cloak to take Charley to Fadeaway Man’s hideout. As the two fight, Charley says that his name is Ch’al Andar, son of Fel Andar — who, if you recall, was said to have impersonated Hawkman, even joining the Justice League. He says that Fel Andar was a Thanagarian hero betrayed by those around him, including Charlie’s other. Fel Andar is apparently still in a Thanagarian prison cell.

As the two continue to battle, Charley reveals all. Charley says that he was the one who “sent the Garuda statue that called the Manicore to your museum,” as seen in issue #34. He secretly organized the villains, connecting Trygg the Sorcerer with Fadeaway Man, then watched as Thought Terror acted to drive Carter against Kendra. Fel Andar’s Thanagarian allies sent Charley the Manhawk eggs, which Satana trained.

Charley next reveals his lineage in a way with deep resonance for Hawkman continuity. Charley then reveals how Andar Nal came to Earth with his brother Andar Pul in 1947. Andar Pul fell in love with Naomi O’Neil and had a son — Fel Andar, who was “raised on Thanagar… unaware that he was a child of two worlds.” Then, when Carter and the rest of the original Justice Society entered limbo to stave off Ragnarok, Fel Andar was sent to Earth as a spy. He fell in love with Sharon Parker and married her, having a son named Charley that they kept from Thanagar because it would have been seen as compromising his loyalties. Thanagar then activated Fel Andar, who was told to become Hawkman and pretend to be Carter Hall, Jr. Sharon Parker seems to have been forcibly reprogrammed to believe herself to be Hawkwoman, while Charley was given up for adoption. Sharon Parker discovered the truth and opposed Fel Andar, so she was killed. Then Carter Hall returned from limbo with the Justice Society and Fel Andar fled to Thanagar where he was imprisoned — not for any actions but for his lineage. He escaped and returned to Earth twice — first to give Charley the Golden Eagle armor and second to save Charley as he lay dying after the battle with Wildebeast that he recounted as part of his phony history two issues before. The father and son had only a few weeks before the Thanagarians tracked him down.

Carter, who’d been losing the fight and had been stabbed multiple times, rallies and defeats Charley Parker — or Ch’al Andar. Using the Cloak of Cagliostro, Carter puts the bloodied Charley on his Thanagarian ship and sets its automatic pilot.

Two nights later, Carter explains it all to the Justice Society and Green Arrow, including how he realized that some unknown villain was behind Fadeaway Man and had his son Dr. Fate cast an illusion of his own death. Carter says that he resigned the Justice Society in order to sort this all out. He suspected Hath-Set and realized it was Golden Eagle only after finding Fadeaway Man (last issue). Kendra points out the Golden Eagle’s impersonating a super-hero parallels his father Fel Andar’s story. Carter asks to rejoin the team, and he’s quickly allowed back.

Hawkman and Hawkgirl are next seen flying over Egypt, where he reveals that he sent Charley’s ship to Thanagar with all the evidence against him. He thinks the Thanagarians, especially Shayera Thal, won’t view this half-Thanagarian son of a traitor favorably. Hawkgirl pulls in close and Carter uses the cloak to teleport them to Majorca, Spain. Kendra chastises Carter for not clueing her in and says that it hurt her reputation with the Justice Society. She insists on being treated as an equal, saying that she’ll move to the Justice Society’s New York headquarters otherwise. Carter says simply that she’s right and admits that he’s sometimes “a little too old fashioned for my own good.” He’s taken her to Spain to make it up to her, booking separate rooms in a nice hotel. He’s left in her room clothes and shoes from around the world, places he traveled to using the cloak. He promises to meet her for dinner downstairs at eight o’clock and leaves her with the cloak so that she can leave instead if she wants.

She comes to dinner. She says there’s a lot that he doesn’t know about her and he says he hopes to change that. As he holds her hand, they toast to the future.

It’s a nice, if a bit hasty, wrap up to a pretty satisfying storyline. The connection to Fel Andar legitimizes and expands upon a chapter of Hawkman continuity than most fans would seem content to forget. It’s fun watching Kendra react to Carter’s apparent death and to Golden Eagle, and their brutal quest for revenge — as well as Carter’s — is well-done. That said, the storyline could be said to have dragged on a bit long — though the ending is, if anything, rushed. Golden Eagle’s false tale of his past gets a full issue, whereas his real story gets only a part of one, wedged in not only with his climactic fight against Carter but with the epilogues featuring the Justice League and the Hawks’ relationship. Perhaps the end of the storyline was rushed due to how long it had already run and how Hawkman needed to start tying into Infinite Crisis — especially with only four issues remaining before DC’s books moved forward a narrative year.

Personally, I would have preferred that these epilogues be given freer reign in their own issue, perhaps at the expense of an earlier chapter, but there’s no denying that it’s a dramatic story featuring no less than a conspiracy against Hawkman, the revitalization of several tertiary Hawkman villains, a new Hawkman, yet another apparent hero turned bad, and what may be a change in Carter and Kendra’s relationship.

The next issue of Hawkman, issue #46, would be a major tie-in toInfinite Crisis, helping to establish how Hawkman continuity related to The Rann-Thanagar War and other events during the Countdown to Infinite Crisis period. The issue would make limited reference to this just-completed extended storyline, and it’s useful to understand this storyline in order to understand Hawkman‘s subsequent issues that tied into Infinite Crisis.

Read the Rest

“Your Guide to Infinite Crisis” attempts to spell out and outline the whole of this sprawling, complicated crossover. It has several other installments, organized by the narrative thread under discussion:

The OMAC Project

Day of Vengeance

Villains United

The Rann-Thanagar War

The Return of Donna Troy

Crisis of Conscience


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In 1996, while still an undergraduate, Dr. Julian Darius founded what would become Sequart Organization. After graduating magna cum laude from Lawrence University (Appleton, Wisconsin), he obtained his M.A. in English, authoring a thesis on John Milton and utopianism. In 2002, he moved to Waikiki, teaching college while obtaining an M.A. in French (high honors) and a Ph.D. in English. In 2011, he founded Martian Lit, which publishes creative work, including his comic book Martian Comics. He currently lives in Illinois.

See more, including free online content, on .

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